Ministry of Human Resource Development to be renamed Ministry of Education

Early childhood education will come under the purview of the Ministry of Education

RTE Act to be extended to 3-6-year olds and up to Class 12.

Nutrition and learning are linked. Pre-primary and primary students to be provided both breakfast and midday meal.

Focus on foundational literacy and numeracy in Grades 1-5, with adaptive assessment.

All Grade 1 students to undergo a 3-month school preparation module.

A pupil-teacher ratio under 30:1 to be ensured.

Current 10+2 school system to change to 5+3+3+4 system

Curriculum load to be reduced to key concepts and essential ideas, enabling space for deeper and more experiential learning.

Flexible curriculum, with no hard separation of curricular, co-curricular or extra-curricular areas; nor of arts and sciences, and ‘vocational’ and ‘academic’ streams.

Education will be in local language/mother tongue at least till Grade 5 but preferably till Grade 8, with a flexible (bilingual) language approach.

Vocational exposure will begin early with all students taking a year-long survey course on vocational skills and crafts in Grades 6-8.

In Grades 9-12, children will have access to vocational courses along with more traditional academic courses.

National Curriculum Framework to be revised by end-2020. New textbooks to be developed.

All examinations (including Board examinations) to test core concepts and skills, along with higher order capacities.

By 2025, assessment at middle school level and above to be through adaptive computerized testing.

From 2020/2021 onwards, National Testing Agency to administer aptitude tests and tests in various subjects.

Higher Education

The current 800 universities and 40,000 colleges to be consolidated into about 15,000 institutions, with three types – research-focused, teaching focused with some research, and UG teaching focused.

All institutions will be either universities or degree-granting autonomous colleges.

All UG programs to be characterized by a liberal education approach.

10 new Indian Institutes of Liberal Arts/Multidisciplinary Education and Research Universities to be set up on the lines of IITs.

Flexible curricular structures to enable creative combinations of disciplines and multiple exit and entry points for students.

UG degree may be of 3 or 4 years duration, with multiple exit stages with appropriate certification; 4-year UG degree with honours route to 1-year Masters or even PhD.

In 2-year Master’s programmes, second year devoted to research; MPhil to be discontinued.

Choice-based Credit System to be revised

A National Higher Education Regulatory Authority to be sole regulator for all higher education

UGC to become Higher Education Grants Council, a purely funding

A National Research Foundation to be set up to catalyse research in all areas.

Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog or National Education Commission to be formed, headed by the PM — this will be the custodian of the vision of education in India.